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Cómo operar con índices

Cómo operar con índices

<p>A diferencia de muchos otros mercados financieros, los índices bursátiles no ofrecen la opción de su intercambio físico. Simplemente no es factible, ya que los índices están compuestos por docenas y cientos de acciones. Esto también significa que la inversión directa en índices no es posible; no puedes comprarlos como acciones. Sin embargo, existen varios instrumentos financieros que reflejan el rendimiento de los índices y que pueden ser negociados e invertidos. Un buen ejemplo de tales instrumentos financieros son los derivados.</p> <p>Con ThinkMarkets, puedes operar con índices bursátiles mediante derivados llamados contratos por diferencia (CFDs). Hay dos tipos de CFDs: contratos sobre el precio actual y contratos sobre futuros de índices. Puede parecer un poco complicado, pero todo lo que necesitas hacer en ambos casos es especular sobre los movimientos de precios. En el primer caso, se trata del movimiento de un precio actual, y en el segundo, del movimiento de un precio futuro. Si tu predicción es correcta, tu operación es exitosa, y si el precio se mueve en la dirección opuesta a tu predicción, tu operación sufre una pérdida.</p> <p>Si eres nuevo en el trading de derivados, echa un vistazo a nuestra guía para principiantes sobre el trading de CFDs, donde explicamos en detalle qué son los derivados y cómo funciona el trading de CFDs.</p> <p>Ten en cuenta que los brokers suelen utilizar diferentes símbolos para distinguir los instrumentos. Por ejemplo, en las plataformas de trading de ThinkMarkets, el S&amp;P 500 se marca como SPX 500 para operaciones de CFDs sobre el precio actual y como ESH3 para operaciones de CFDs sobre contratos de futuros.</p> <h2>Cómo operar con índices mediante CFDs</h2> <h3>En largo</h3> <p>Supongamos que deseas realizar una operación en el índice SPX 500. El precio actual es de USD 4,000.00, y crees que va a subir. Abres una posición larga de CFDs (compra), y el precio sube a USD 4,010.00. Los USD 10 son tu beneficio. Si el precio baja a USD 3,990.00 en su lugar, los USD 10 serán tu pérdida.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/getmedia/d4e439ef-1d47-4500-9a69-cd9515fb48bc/article-how-to-trade-indices-long.webp" style="width: 552px; height: 434px;" /></p> <h3>En corto</h3> <p>En el escenario opuesto, tu predicción indica que el precio va a bajar, y realizas una operación corta de CFDs (venta). Si el precio baja a USD 3,990.00, como predijiste, los USD 10 serán tu beneficio. Si sube a USD 4,010.00 en su lugar, los USD 10 se convertirán en tu pérdida.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/getmedia/8eac9b34-5ae0-4486-853d-01343c1207ea/article-how-to-trade-indices-short.webp" style="width: 552px; height: 442px;" /></p> <p>Como puedes ver, es bastante sencillo. Ahora, veamos la diferencia entre operar CFDs sobre los precios actuales de los índices y CFDs sobre contratos de futuros de índices.</p> <p>Cuando operas CFDs sobre el precio actual de un índice bursátil, significa que tu contrato sigue su precio en tiempo real, y también especulas sobre el precio actual. Por otro lado, un CFD sobre el contrato de futuros del índice implica especular sobre el precio del índice en una fecha determinada en el futuro.</p> <p>En ambos casos, operar con índices mediante CFDs te brinda horas de trading extendidas, a diferencia de otros tipos de trading. Hay una explicación simple: mientras que las acciones se cotizan en bolsas con horarios de apertura fijos y limitados, los CFDs no se cotizan en ningún lugar. Dado que solo siguen el precio del índice, permanece establecido en su precio de cierre mientras las bolsas están cerradas, lo que lo hace disponible para el trading. Una vez que las bolsas vuelven a abrir, el precio se ajusta. Puedes encontrar más información sobre los horarios de trading en la página de especificaciones del contrato.</p> <p>Independientemente de la forma de trading que elijas, hay algunos términos más que necesitas conocer para entender mejor tu operación de CFDs sobre índices.</p> <h3>Puntos y ticks</h3> <p>Los movimientos de precios en el trading de índices se miden en puntos y ticks. Un punto se refiere al movimiento de precio más pequeño en el lado izquierdo del punto decimal. Un tick, por otro lado, se refiere al movimiento de precio más pequeño en el lado derecho de este. El valor de un punto es igual a USD 1, y un tick es igual a USD 0.01.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/getmedia/c850f30e-f907-4925-89f3-2c8a218d3ff7/article-how-to-trade-indices-ticks.webp" style="width: 268px; height: 160px;" /></p> <h3>Spread</h3> <p>Un spread en el trading de índices, al igual que en cualquier otro mercado financiero, significa la diferencia entre el precio de compra (oferta) y el precio de venta (demanda). Por ejemplo, en la imagen a continuación, puedes ver que el spread del SPX 500 es de 0.4 o 40 centavos. Básicamente, un spread es el costo de cualquier operación. Es exactamente por eso que cualquier nueva operación que un trader abre comienza con una pérdida: el monto del spread se deduce automáticamente y necesita ser cubierto primero antes de obtener ganancias si la operación es exitosa.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/getmedia/1c0a768a-b4a9-4fe0-9008-3e83bc9292d7/article-how-to-trade-indices-spread.webp" style="width: 552px; height: 152px;" /></p> <p>Ten en cuenta que la colocación de un punto decimal es diferente en el trading de índices y el trading de acciones. El mismo spread de 40 centavos en el trading de acciones se marcaría como 40.0.</p> <h3>Lotes</h3> <p>Un lote en el trading representa un tamaño de operación, o en otras palabras, el número de unidades de un instrumento financiero. Este número es diferente para cada mercado financiero. En el mercado de valores, un lote contiene diez contratos o diez CFDs en nuestro caso. Cuando operas con índices, generalmente hay requisitos mínimos de tamaño de operación establecidos por el broker. Con ThinkMarkets, algunos índices solo se pueden operar en lotes completos y otros en mini lotes, que equivalen a 0.1 de un lote completo (1 CFD). También puedes encontrar estos detalles en la página de especificaciones del contrato.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/getmedia/3c1474ed-b4ef-404b-a3a0-96cb488a79c9/article-how-to-trade-indices-lots.webp" style="width: 480px; height: 368px;" /></p> <h3>Apalancamiento y margen</h3> <p>Operar con índices mediante CFDs implica el uso de apalancamiento. Significa que los traders toman prestados fondos de un broker para abrir posiciones que exceden el saldo de su cuenta. Para permitir la utilización de sus fondos, los brokers requieren un depósito, llamado margen. También explicamos ambos conceptos en detalle en la guía para principiantes sobre el trading de CFDs.</p> <p>Cuando operas con apalancamiento, no necesitas pagar el precio completo para abrir una posición, solo el depósito (margen). La cantidad del depósito depende de cuán grande sea tu apalancamiento: un apalancamiento más grande significa un depósito más pequeño, y viceversa. El nivel de apalancamiento varía dependiendo del mercado e instrumento y generalmente es establecido por el broker para cada índice bursátil específico.</p> <p>Veamos cómo funciona el apalancamiento en el trading de índices en el mismo ejemplo, donde realizamos una operación de CFD a USD 4,000.00. Si abres esta operación con un apalancamiento de 200:1, solo necesitas pagar 1/200 del monto total, o USD 20.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/getmedia/7c2c6b6d-2640-4b69-96c8-16f351b7fe7c/article-how-to-trade-indices-leverage.webp" style="width: 552px; height: 268px;" /></p> <p>Ese es el principal beneficio de operar con índices mediante apalancamiento: puedes abrir una posición mucho más grande con un depósito más pequeño. También se multiplica tu potencial de ganancias. Sin embargo, si incurres en pérdidas, estas también se multiplican. Por eso es crucial utilizar herramientas de gestión de riesgos como el stop loss y el take profit.</p> <p>Comprender esta información básica es fundamental para tener éxito en el trading de índices. Una vez que estés seguro con los fundamentos, puedes crear una estrategia de trading más sofisticada. Sin embargo, es muy recomendable practicar en una cuenta demo primero antes de operar con dinero real.</p>

4 min readBeginners
What is a stock market index?

What is a stock market index?

<p>The stock market we know today is nothing like it used to be when the concept was born. Hundreds of years ago, the stock market started as a small institution created by agricultural traders and banks of Europe to manage and regulate commodity trading. Fast forward to the 21st century, it has transformed into a comprehensive global network of stock exchanges.<br /> <br /> The modern stock market, also called the share or equity market, offers various financial instruments (securities) on dozens of exchanges worldwide &ndash; stocks, shares, bonds, mutual funds and others.<br /> <br /> When a number of such securities are put together, it&#39;s called a stock index. In this article, we&#39;ll take a closer look at stock market indices, explain how they work and the benefits of index trading</p> <h2>What is a stock market index?</h2> <p>A stock index is a basket of various financial instruments. However, most indices that are available for public trading typically include only companies&#39; shares. These companies have to be publicly listed on a stock exchange, meaning their shares can be bought, sold and owned by the public.<br /> <br /> There are different ways of organising these companies into stock indices &ndash; they can be grouped by financial market, country, industry or another differentiator. This allows analysts to track and measure the performance of the category they belong to and calculate market performance. For example, if an index value of the US major companies is going up in value, it usually means that the country&#39;s economy is expanding.</p> <h2>What is an index ticker?</h2> <p>An index ticker, also called a symbol or code, is a combination of letters and numbers used for the index&#39;s easy identification and tracking. Just like each currency has a code in the forex market &ndash; EUR for the euro, USD for the US dollar and so on, indices also have their own code. For example, S&amp;P 500 stands for The Standard and Poor&#39;s 500 index. The term ticker is not exclusive to stock indices and used in other markets, such as stocks, futures and ETFs, too.<br /> <br /> Keep in mind that brokers usually use different tickers to distinguish instruments used to trade indices. For example, with ThinkMarkets, you can trade indices with CFDs, so to differentiate the actual S&amp;P 500 index from a CFD contract on it, the latter has the SPX 500 ticker.<br /> <br /> <img alt="TM-Screen-What-is-a-stock-index-1.png" src="~/getmedia/a5189b4f-bfff-48cf-b265-c184ed7acada/TM-Screen-What-is-a-stock-index-1.png" style="display: flex; margin: 20px auto;" title="TM-Screen-What-is-a-stock-index-1.png" /></p> <h2>What are the most popular indices in the stock market?</h2> <p>The popularity of a stock index depends on where the companies within it originate. For example, with the US being the largest economy in the world, American stock indices make up over 50% of the value of the global stock market. It is no surprise that these indices are the most popular and the most traded in the world, with S&amp;P 500, Nasdaq 100 and Dow Jones usually leading this list.<br /> <br /> <img alt="01-map-1.png" src="/getmedia/3f976ffd-1a3e-4015-98e0-a1c5a6f1d6ea/01-map-1.png" style="display: flex; margin: 20px auto;" title="01-map-1.png" /></p> <h3>S&amp;P 500 (SPX 500)</h3> <p>The S&amp;P 500 is a stock market index that tracks the performance of the 500 largest companies in the US. It is considered the benchmark of the American economy because the aggregated value of the companies within it represents over two-thirds of the US stock market&rsquo;s value.</p> <h3>Dow Jones Industrial Average (US 30)</h3> <p>The Dow Jones Industrial Average index is very similar to the S&amp;P 500 but tracks only the 30 largest companies. Due to their similarity, these two stock indices are highly correlated and tend to move in the same direction.</p> <h3>Nasdaq 100 (NAS 100)</h3> <p>The Nasdaq 100 index consists of the 100 largest non-financial companies&#39; stocks. The companies that make up this stock index represent various industries, but due to the dominance of major technology sector players, NAS 100 is tech-heavy.<br /> <br /> Other popular indices usually track the performance of large economies, such as the total market index of the UK &ndash; FTSE 100 (UK 100), Japan &ndash; Nikkei 225 (JPN 225), Germany &ndash; DAX 40 (GER 40), and others.</p> <h2>Why is index trading popular?</h2> <p>Index trading attracts a fair share of retail traders looking for personal gain. Here is why it&#39;s so appealing to them:</p> <h3>Diversification</h3> <p>Due to their nature, indices provide traders with greater exposure than any other financial market, limiting risk at the same time, as they are less likely to be affected by a sharp move from a single stock.</p> <h3>Comfortable volatility levels and consistent trends</h3> <p>Broad diversification results in more consistent trends and much milder volatility that rarely sees enormous price jumps, which can be very appealing for risk-averse traders.</p> <h3>Reliability</h3> <p>The stock market is well established. It&#39;s been around for a couple of centuries and has had enough time to set clear rules and regulations. Stock exchanges around the world are managed by reputable and trustworthy institutions that would crack down on fraud or price manipulation.</p> <h2>How are indices made?</h2> <p>The list of companies that make up a specific stock index is not permanent. Every index has a set of criteria a company needs to meet to be included in a certain stock index. The requirements may vary from index to index, but market capitalisation and liquidity thresholds are usually among the most common ones. As market conditions change and economies evolve, some companies may fall out of an index while others may become a better fit for it.<br /> <br /> The eligibility requirements also depend on the index&#39;s type. For example, indices that are weighted by company value may have very different prerequisites compared to indices weighted by stock prices. In our next article, <a href="~/en/trading-academy/indices/stock-market-indices">Stock market indices: all the types you need to know</a>, we explore different types of indices and explain how they can be calculated.<br /> <br /> &nbsp;</p>

10 min readBeginners
What affects a stock index price?

What affects a stock index price?

<p>Understanding what moves the stock index prices is crucial for a successful trading strategy. Knowing the bigger picture can help you make an informed decision and identify the right time to place a buy or sell order instead of trying to predict price movements sporadically.<br /> <br /> It is true that the past performance of any financial instruments, indices included, doesn&#39;t always serve as a good indication of their future movements. It&#39;s important to look at other factors that drive stock index prices up or down to identify trading opportunities.<br /> <br /> These factors can be divided into two groups: those that influence individual stock prices within an index and those that drive an index as a whole.</p> <h2>Factors influencing individual stocks within an index</h2> <p><img alt="" src="/getmedia/6e2a8dba-8d06-44c2-bb37-e28461ba1b05/article-what-affects-stock-index-prices-individual.webp" style="width: 552px; height: 283px;" /><br /> <br /> The first group is particularly important for indices <a href="~/en/trading-academy/indices/stock-market-indices">weighted by market cap or stock price</a>, as their price can be significantly affected by the top-performing stocks.<br /> <br /> For example, tech giants like Apple, Microsoft, Amazon, Google (Alphabet) and Meta make up almost 40% of the Nasdaq 100 (NAS 100) index, each accounting for 3-11% weight of the index. If any of these companies experience significant changes in their stock price, it will affect the price of NAS 100 to a much greater extent than a company holding only 0.2% weight of the index.<br /> <br /> To evaluate the possible price fluctuations of top performance in an index, experienced traders usually identify them first and then look for the following information:</p> <h3>Company earning reports</h3> <p>Bigger than expected profits are likely to drive the stock (and index) price up, while unexpected losses can have the opposite effect. Earnings reports are usually released quarterly and published during the first month of the following quarter.</p> <h3>Announcement of dividends</h3> <p>Some traders are hunting for dividends, buying shares shortly before the dividend announcement, also called the ex-dividend date. This drives the demand up, increasing the stock price as a result. After the dividend pay-out day, they sell their shares, which causes an immediate drop in their price. As most companies pay dividends quarterly or semiannually, it is worth keeping an eye on these releases to catch index trading opportunities.</p> <h3>Management restructure</h3> <p>A CEO or any other key role replacement can have a big impact on the stock price, affecting the entire index price. The direction of the price movement usually depends on market sentiment. If traders see the successor as competent, it can increase the stock price and vice versa.</p> <h3>Positive company news</h3> <p>Announcements of a new product launch or expansion usually indicate a company&rsquo;s solid growth plan, which can drive its share price up, increasing the index price consequently. However, this factor largely depends on market sentiment as well.</p> <h3>Alleged controversies</h3> <p>A company&#39;s involvement in controversial reports usually affects its reputation negatively, thereby affecting its share price and bringing the index price down. In some cases, damage can be caused not only by a company&rsquo;s reputation but by the reputation of its leader as well. For example, Elon Musk, the co-founder and CEO of Tesla, brought price swings to the company&rsquo;s shares with his publicity stunts more than once.</p> <h2>Factors that affect a stock index price as a whole</h2> <img alt="" src="/getmedia/3bd1a15f-eac2-4a6c-a7c3-02f2ce066815/article-what-affects-stock-index-prices-whole.webp" style="width: 552px; height: 271px;" /> <p><br /> This group of factors usually has a much stronger impact on an index price than factors affecting individual stocks. They can be divided into three sub-groups: economic data, political events and natural calamities.<br /> <br /> When analysing these factors, traders need to keep in mind the origin of the index and the companies listed within it. For example, the US data and events are the most influential for American indices, such as S&amp;P 500, Dow Jones, and Nasdaq 100. On the other hand, for the Euro Stoxx 50 index, which includes stocks from 11 countries within the Eurozone, traders need to keep an eye on data from the countries of origin of the top-performing stocks.</p> <h3>Economic data</h3> <p>Indicators such as interest rates, inflation and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) are among the main factors affecting index prices. As many indices are grouped by industry or country, significant changes in the mentioned numbers usually hit the whole index.<br /> <br /> For example, if the inflation rate in the US increases, it will negatively impact the whole US stock market, bringing down the prices of all major indices in a ripple effect. In the opposite scenario, a strong USD usually has a positive effect on them.<br /> <br /> Increasing interest rates can have a similar effect on index prices, making business loans much more costly for companies, which, in turn, slows down their development, bringing stock prices down.<br /> <br /> On the other hand, a rising GDP signals a strengthening economy and can positively impact an index, driving its price up.<br /> <br /> Keep in mind that all economic processes are interlinked &ndash; an increasing GDP in the long term usually means increasing inflation, which means increasing interest rates to fight it and so on. Hence, economic indicators need to be analysed as an aggregate rather than on their own. An <a href="~/en/economic-calendar">economic calendar </a>is a great tool that helps traders have all the worldwide data releases in one place.</p> <h3>Political events</h3> <p>Political instability within a country tends to influence the country&rsquo;s stock market indices negatively. Weak government, protests, and controversial policies can cause a visible decline in index prices. Elections can bring a lot of volatility to the index price too, but this volatility is primarily caused by public sentiment, reacting to election promises given by winning candidates.<br /> <br /> Some large-scale political events have a strong negative influence not only on the countries involved but also on the global economy.<br /> <br /> At the end of June 2016, when the UK voted in favour of leaving the EU, and it became clear that Brexit was, in fact, happening, over USD 2 trillion was wiped out from the global stock market in a single day.<br /> <br /> Another example is the Russian invasion of Ukraine. The war disrupted the supply chains of many commodities that used to be supplied by both Ukraine and Russia, affecting the global stock market. Moreover, sanctions aiming to paralyse the Russian economy affected multiple economic sectors, causing an almost 10% plunge in the global stock market during the first week of the war. However, as the NATO alliance showed strong support for Ukraine, the stock market bounced back.</p> <h3>Natural factors</h3> <p>Natural disasters, such as tsunamis, floods, wildfires, and public health emergencies, like the infamous COVID-19 pandemic, can bring not only serious physical damage but economic damage as well. These events interrupt the production and distribution of goods and services, affecting global markets and bringing the prices of stock indices down. COVID alone, for example, sent the stock market into a free fall, causing the sixth-worst percentage price drop in history. However, in the long run, the pandemic has benefitted the tech industry, and tech-heavy indices have had significant growth which is reflected in their prices.<br /> <br /> Traders looking for index trading opportunities need to pay close attention to the news covering important events. However, this data can only indicate possible price movements, not a 100% accurate prediction. To create a holistic trading plan, it&rsquo;s important to evaluate several factors consecutively and draw an informed conclusion.<br /> <br /> Moreover, market sentiment or public perception can often influence index prices more than anything else. Unfortunately, since it&rsquo;s a subjective matter, it cannot be predicted in advance, but some traders use technical analysis to spot price movements caused by market sentiment. We&rsquo;ll discuss technical analysis in one of our following articles.<br /> <br /> For now, let&rsquo;s first see how you can trade indices with the information we have covered in this article. The good news is that when you trade indices with CFDs, you can capitalise on both rising and falling prices. Check out our <a href="~/en/trading-academy/indices/how-to-trade-indices">How to trade indices</a> article to see how it works.</p>

3 min readBeginners
Stock market indices: all the types you need to know

Stock market indices: all the types you need to know

<p>Traders just getting into stock market indices may notice a lot of different terms used to define them, such as small cap, equal weighted, growth index and many others. All these names are used to define what types of stocks make up an index to facilitate market analysis for traders.<br /> <br /> In this article, we&rsquo;ll help you outline the main types of indices and their differences.<br /> <br /> Let&#39;s start with one of the most common ways to categorise indices &ndash; by the weight of stocks within them.<br /> <br /> <img alt="" src="/getmedia/6ade89c8-1b01-4102-8d86-e205dff6a416/article-indeces-types-all.webp" style="width: 552px; height: 269px;" /></p> <h2>Weighted indices</h2> &nbsp; <p>There are three types of indices by weight:</p> <h3>Market capitalisation-weighted indices</h3> <p>A company&#39;s market capitalisation means its value on a market. It can be calculated by multiplying the total number of outstanding shares (all the shares it has ever issued) by the share price.<br /> <br /> For example, if company A has 100,000 shares priced at USD 20, its market cap is:<br /> &nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><strong>100,000 X 20 = USD 2,000,000</strong><br /> &nbsp;</p> <p>If an index is weighted by market cap, it means that the companies with a higher market capitalisation or value are given more weight. Simply put, higher valued companies have more importance in a market cap-weighted index. For example, if the index value is USD 500 million, a company worth USD 100 million will make up 20% of the index value. Price movements of this company have more effect on the index than a company with a USD 10 million market cap.<br /> <br /> <img alt="" src="/getmedia/05c99dd9-460d-494a-94d5-9806c49b8c66/article-indeces-types-market-cap-weight.webp" style="width: 552px; height: 336px;" /><br /> <br /> Market cap indices are the most common because they provide a clear and accurate way of evaluating stocks within an index. It also makes the performance analysis of an index much easier, as it is based on stocks&rsquo; true value. Almost all the top-traded indices we discussed in our previous <a href="~/en/trading-academy/stocks/what-are-stocks">What is a stock index</a> article are weighted by their market cap &ndash; S&amp;P 500 (SPX 500), Nasdaq 100 (NAS 100), FTSE 100 (UK 100), DAX 40 (GER 40) and Nikkei 225 (JPN 225).<br /> <br /> However, most of these indices list stocks by free-float market capitalisation. It means that the company&rsquo;s market cap is calculated by taking into consideration only the publicly held shares, ignoring the privately owned ones.</p> <h3>Price-weighted indices</h3> <p>The companies within price-weighted indices are given weight according to their current share price. The most expensive shares will have more importance compared to the lower-priced ones. For example, a company with a share price of USD 1,000 will have a much stronger effect on the index performance when its price fluctuates compared to a company with USD 100 shares.<br /> <br /> The Dow Jones (US 30) index is one of the most popular examples of a price-weighted index.<br /> <br /> <img alt="" src="/getmedia/b34fc161-34a4-4156-b9a1-74397245b666/article-indeces-types-price-weight.webp" style="width: 552px; height: 336px;" /><br /> <br /> Price-weighted indices are less common than market cap ones because stock prices are not always an accurate indication of their true value.</p> <h3>Equal-weighted indices</h3> <p>This way of calculating indices is the most intuitive &ndash; each company carries equal weight, value and importance, regardless of the company&#39;s size. Simply put, in an index made up of 100 companies, each company represents only 1% of the overall index&#39;s price.<br /> <br /> <img alt="" src="/getmedia/8d4a5809-05db-4b49-b5fa-af0c38918e1a/article-indeces-types-equal-weight.webp" style="width: 552px; height: 336px;" /><br /> <br /> Equal-weighted indices are quite popular among traders because they don&#39;t depend on the largest stocks as much as the market cap indices, which reduces the risk for traders.<br /> <br /> Keep in mind that some indices can have several variations. For example, the S&amp;P 500 is commonly used as a market capitalisation-weighted index, but there is also a lesser known, equally weighted version. This equal-weighted S&amp;P 500 is tracked under a different ticker and has the same list of companies, but they are given a fixed weight.</p> <h2>Market capitalisation indices</h2> &nbsp; <p>The market-cap indices can be further divided into three smaller groups:<br /> &nbsp;</p> <ul> <li>Large cap indices &ndash; over USD 10 billion</li> <li>Mid cap indices &ndash; USD 2 &ndash; 10 billion</li> <li>Small cap indices &ndash; USD 300 million &ndash; 2 billion</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>This method of index classification is also very popular among traders as it gives an immediate indication of the index&rsquo;s nature. You&rsquo;ll often see it in the name of the index right away, for example, Russel Mid Cap 2000 index (US 2000). If you don&rsquo;t see any indication, it implies that the index is a large cap, like all the most popular indices we&rsquo;ve mentioned above.</p> <h2>Indices by geographical affiliation</h2> &nbsp; <p>On a wider scale, indices are usually divided by the geographical location of the companies included in them.<br /> &nbsp;</p> <ul> <li>Global (worldwide) indices track stocks from all over the world. For example, the MSCI world index consists of stocks from 23 countries.</li> <li>Regional indices consist of stocks of a particular region. The Euro Stoxx 50 index (ESTX 50), composed of 50 blue-chip companies from 11 countries of the Eurozone, is one good example of a regional index.</li> </ul> &nbsp; <p>It&#39;s worth mentioning that there are indices that are somewhat similar to regional, but they combine stocks from various locations based on the economic advancement of their country of origin &ndash; developed or emerging.<br /> &nbsp;</p> <ul> <li>National indices are made up of stocks of the same country. These indices are the most popular and heavily traded because their performance is correlated with their respective country&rsquo;s economic growth, making it easier to evaluate and identify trading opportunities. That&rsquo;s where the top-traded indices from our list belong, among many others.</li> </ul> <br /> <br /> National indices, along with the sectoral ones, are often used as a benchmark &ndash; a standard to measure the performance of other indices against, as they usually include the best-performing stocks of their category. <p>&nbsp;</p> <h2>Sectoral indices</h2> &nbsp; <p>This classification is popular among traders because companies that belong to the same economic sector are usually influenced by the same factors and perform similarly, making the analysis easier.<br /> <br /> According to the Global Industry Classification Standard, there are 11 official stock market sectors:<br /> &nbsp;</p> <ul> <li>Financials</li> <li>Healthcare</li> <li>Energy</li> <li>Materials</li> <li>Utilities</li> <li>Industrials</li> <li>Real estate</li> <li>Consumer discretionary</li> <li>Consumer staples</li> <li>Information technology</li> <li>Communication services</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h2>Indices by stock types</h2> &nbsp; <ul> <li>Value indices are made of stocks that tend to preserve value, combined with slow but steady growth, resulting in very low volatility. Due to reduced trading opportunities, these indices are rarely of any interest among day traders. However, they are often appreciated by long-term investors.</li> </ul> &nbsp; <ul> <li>Growth indices consist of companies with above average sales growth and may experience periods of high volatility. The most traded stocks usually belong to this category.</li> </ul> <h2>Islamic indices</h2> &nbsp; <p>Besides the outlined common types of indices, analysts often segregate Islamic indices into a separate category. These indices can be further categorised following the same logic as other indices, but they only include stocks of the companies that comply with Sharia law. However, due to some limitations and controversies, these indices are more popular among long-term investors than active traders.<br /> <br /> It&#39;s important to check some basic information about an index before you start trading it, as it can help you evaluate future price movements and identify trading opportunities. In market cap and price-weighted indices, for example, you&#39;ll need to pay closer attention to factors affecting the largest and most expensive stocks as they affect the overall price of the index. On the other hand, equal-weighted indices are more sensitive to factors affecting their overall performance. National indices will heavily depend on the economy of the country they belong to, sectoral on a sector and so on. Now let&#39;s see <a href="~/en/trading-academy/indices/what-affects-stock-index-prices">what can affect stock market indices&#39; price movements.</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p>

4 min readBeginners
How to Use the Relative Vigor Index in Trading

How to Use the Relative Vigor Index in Trading

<p dir="ltr">The<strong>&nbsp;Relative Vigor Index (RVI)&nbsp;</strong>is an indicator that calculates the&nbsp;<strong>power</strong>&nbsp;behind price movements. In essence, the RVI indicator attempts to gauge when the market will reverse from the current uptrend or a downtrend.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr">In this blog post we look at the key characteristics of the relative vigor index indicator, how it is calculated, as well as its strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we will be sharing advice on how to design a simple trading strategy based on the RVI indicator.</p> <h2>The formula for RVI&nbsp;</h2> <p dir="ltr">The RVI indicator is based on an idea that the price action has a tendency to close higher compared to the opening prices in an uptrend, and have lower closing prices than opening in a downtrend.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr">A formula to measure the RVI is as follows:</p> &nbsp; <p dir="ltr"><strong>​NUMERATOR&nbsp;</strong>=&nbsp; a+(2&times;b)+(2&times;c)+d</p> <p dir="ltr">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>DENOMINATOR&nbsp;</strong>= e+(2&times;f)+(2&times;g)+h</p> <p dir="ltr">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>RVI</strong>&nbsp;= SMA of NUMERATOR for N periods</p> <p dir="ltr">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;SMA of DENOMINATOR for N periods</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr"><strong>Signal Line</strong>&nbsp;= RVI+(2&times;i)+(2&times;j)+k</p> <p dir="ltr">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;6</p> <p dir="ltr">Where:</p> <ul> <li>a=Close&minus;Open</li> <li>b=Close&minus;Open One Bar Prior to a</li> <li>c=Close&minus;Open One Bar Prior to b</li> <li>d=Close&minus;Open One Bar Prior to c</li> <li>e=High&minus;Low of Bar a</li> <li>f=High&minus;Low of Bar b</li> <li>g=High&minus;Low of Bar c</li> <li>h=High&minus;Low of Bar d</li> <li>i=RVI Value One Bar Prior</li> <li>j=RVI Value One Bar Prior to i</li> <li>k=RVI Value One Bar Prior to j</li> <li>N=Minutes/Hours/Days/Weeks/Months</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr">As you can see from the formula the RVI also has a&nbsp;<em>signal line&nbsp;</em>that interacts with the indicator. Based on the crossovers and divergences between these two, we extract the trading signals.</p> &nbsp; <p dir="ltr">As many other trading platforms,&nbsp;<a data-di-id="di-id-6e0d35b7-1d3b3793" href="/metatrader5">MetaTrader 5</a>&nbsp;has a built-in RVI indicator. You simply choose the indicator from a drop-down menu and it will show up automatically on your chart.&nbsp;<em>The default setting is based on 10 periods</em>, in addition to a green color for the RVI oscillator, and red for the signal line.<br /> <br /> <img alt="" src="~/TMXWebsite/media/TMXWebsite/Image-1-Vigor-index.jpg" /><br /> <br /> The RVI indicator fluctuates around the centre&nbsp;line and&nbsp;<em>it travels from above to below zero</em>, and vice versa. As you can see from the photo below, the values are rising as the price trades in a bullish environment and vice versa. The indicator is classified as a centered oscillator, since it oscillates around the center line rather than a banded oscillator.<br /> <br /> <img alt="" src="~/TMXWebsite/media/TMXWebsite/Image-2-Vigor-Index.jpg" /><br /> <br /> &nbsp;</p> <h2>Strengths and weaknesses of RVI</h2> The RVI compares the asset&rsquo;s closing price to a recent price range and generates values of the power behind price movements. The higher the values it generates, the stronger the trend should be. On the other hand, lower RVI values imply a calm and sideways market.&nbsp; <p dir="ltr">&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> RVI generates values which sometimes trade near the extreme levels up and down. Similar to the&nbsp;<a data-di-id="di-id-e48f415c-dc5b1189" href="/trading-academy/forex/analysis/rsi-indicator">Relative Strength Index (RSI)</a>&nbsp;in these situations, the RVI signals that a change in the trend direction is probable, which is actually its greatest strength.&nbsp; <p dir="ltr">&nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr">On the other hand, the key weakness associated with the RVI is that it is practically useless in the ranging markets, when the price action doesn&rsquo;t move in a clear uptrend or downtrend. Hence, traders tend to usually consult the RVI when the price action trades in the uptrend or downtrend for a longer period of time, as they try to predict when the current trend will end.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> <br /> &nbsp;</p> <h2>Crossover and divergence</h2> <p dir="ltr">As noted earlier, the RVI indicator interacts with the signal line, creating different types of signals. For instance, a trading signal is generated when the RVI moves above the signal line. This situation is called a bullish crossover and it indicates that the price action is likely to start moving upwards. The bearish crossover is the opposite of the bullish crossover i.e. the RVI crosses below the signal line.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr">On the other hand, the interaction between the RVI and the price action can produce a&nbsp;<a data-di-id="di-id-201c69d3-252d29a6" href="/trading-academy/forex/analysis/bullish-bearish-divergence">bullish and bearish divergence</a>. The former occurs when the RVI creates a higher low or a higher high, while the price action creates a new low. It signals that the price action is likely to start following the RVI higher.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p dir="ltr">The latter takes place in the opposite scenario - the price action is still trading in an uptrend, but the RVI has already started to come off the highs, which implies that the asset&rsquo;s price will start following the RVI in moving lower.&nbsp;</p> <h2>How to trade the RVI&nbsp;</h2> <p>There are many different<strong>&nbsp;trading strategies based on the RVI indicator</strong>, as it is the case with the RSI and other oscillators. The vast majority of those are centred around either crossovers or divergence.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Here we are sharing a very simple trading strategy that tends to mix these two scenarios - a crossover and divergence. This way we get two signals pointing to the same future development - a reversal.<br /> <br /> In a chart below, you see USD/CAD moving lower, below the most recent low. The RVI follows and creates a short-term low, trading extremely close to its minimum levels. Remember that the RVI should only be consulted in the trading markets.<br /> <br /> <img alt="" src="~/TMXWebsite/media/TMXWebsite/Image-3-Vigor-index_1.jpg" /><br /> <br /> &nbsp;</p> <p>The RVI then generates two bullish signals. First, the crossover occurs as the RVI indicator<em>&nbsp;(the green line)&nbsp;</em>moves above the signal line&nbsp;<em>(the red line)</em>, signalling that the trend is likely to change from bearish to bullish.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Secondly, the price action creates a series of consecutive lower lows, a situation which is not confirmed by the RVI, which starting with a crossover continues to move higher. As we noted earlier, this situation is called&nbsp;<em>a bullish divergence</em>&nbsp;and it signals that the price action may start following the RVI higher soon.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> At this point, two bullish signals convince us to open a trade and look for a reversal. We opened a long trade aiming to capitalise on the impending trend reversal as the sellers seemed to have run out of gas.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The entry should be placed once both the crossover and the divergence issue bullish signals. The stop loss is placed around 40 pips below, to allow for the price action to potentially create another short term low.&nbsp;<br /> <br /> Take profit is determined by searching for a &ldquo;magnet level&rdquo; - an important price point that played an important role in the past. This can be either a&nbsp;<a data-di-id="di-id-9ff3eeec-f5d0272a" href="/trading-academy/forex/analysis/fibonacci-ratios">Fibonacci retracement/extension</a>, moving average, trend line etc. In this case, we use the previous swing low, which is now likely to act as a resistance.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Ultimately,&nbsp;<strong>the price action creates a sharp reversal</strong>, surging higher and hitting our take profit order in just two days. In this trade, we risked 40 pips to make around 80 pips, which translates to a 1:2 risk-reward.<br /> &nbsp;</p>

6 min readBeginners

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